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In brief the modern steelmaking process consists of three main phases 1 ironmaking in which the molten iron is resulted when the

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  • Manufacturer of Steel Pipes & Profiles - Mehr Steel Co
    Manufacturer of Steel Pipes & Profiles - Mehr Steel Co

    Modern steelmaking can be broken down into six steps: 1. Ironmaking: In the first step, the raw inputs iron ore, coke, and lime are melted in a blast furnace. The resulting molten iron, also referred to as 'hot metal,' still contains 4-4.5% carbon and other impurities that make it brittle. 2

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  • Iron - Wikipedia
    Iron - Wikipedia

    Iron (/ ˈ aɪ ər n /) is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from Latin: ferrum) and atomic number 26. It is a metal that belongs to the first transition series and group 8 of the periodic table.It is, by mass, the most common element on Earth, right in front of oxygen (32.1% and 30.1%, respectively), forming much of Earth's outer and inner core.It is the fourth most common

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  • Improvement of Function and Utilization of Steelmaking
    Improvement of Function and Utilization of Steelmaking

    Steelmaking slag is one of the main by-products of steelmaking process, and it has to be efficiently utilized. ... Chinese modern ironmaking and steelmaking processes produce almost the same amount of slags and thus it is expected that severalfold amount of ... solid phases, change in phosphorus content from 0.1 to 0.01 mass%

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  • Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Slag: Formation, Reaction, and
    Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Slag: Formation, Reaction, and

    Aug 10, 2021 1 Introduction. The basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS) process produced over 70% of the global crude steel in 2018, [] generating 100 to 150 kg of slag (“BOS slag”) for every tonne of crude steel produced. BOS slag, a product of hot metal element (e.g., Si, Mn, Fe, P) oxidation and flux (e.g., lime, dolomite) dissolution, plays a critical role in the production of high

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  • Steel making - SlideShare
    Steel making - SlideShare

    Dec 24, 2014 In brief the composition of pig iron is the only factor that determines the acid or the basic character of the process to be adopted for steelmaking. In an acid process slag is acidic and the furnace lining has to be acidic to withstand the slag

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  • Quality requirements of iron ore for iron production
    Quality requirements of iron ore for iron production

    Traditionally, the main sources of iron for making steel were blast furnace hot metal and recycled steel in the form of scrap. Blast furnace ironmaking

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  • Steeelmaking 1 Phpapp02 | Steelmaking | Iron
    Steeelmaking 1 Phpapp02 | Steelmaking | Iron

    Such a process is called basic steelmaking process. The furnace lining in this case has to be basic in nature. In brief the composition of pig iron is the only factor that determines the acid or the basic character of the process to be adopted for steelmaking. In an acid process slag is acidic and the furnace lining has to be acidic to

    Read more +
  • The Phosphorus Reaction in Oxygen Steelmaking
    The Phosphorus Reaction in Oxygen Steelmaking

    1.1 The Oxygen Steelmaking Process. In integrated steel plants, the steelmaking process starts with cokemaking and sin-tering followed by the Blast Furnace (BF). The BF is responsible for reducing the iron bearing charge such as iron ore, pellets or sinter and producing hot metal

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  • Application of Magnetic Separation to Steelmaking Slags
    Application of Magnetic Separation to Steelmaking Slags

    Grinding, sieving and magnetic separation were combined to recover metallic iron from the converter slag, and yielded approximately 41.5% of iron

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  • Wrought iron - WikiMili, The Best Wikipedia Reader
    Wrought iron - WikiMili, The Best Wikipedia Reader

    Wrought iron is an iron alloy with a very low carbon content (less than 0.08%) in contrast to that of cast iron (2.1% to 4%). It is a semi-fused mass of iron with fibrous slag inclusions (up to 2% by weight), which gives it a grain resembling wood that is visible when it is etched or bent to the point of failure. Wrought iron is tough, malleable, ductile, corrosion resistant, and easily welded

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  • Treatments and Recycling of Metallurgical Slags | IntechOpen
    Treatments and Recycling of Metallurgical Slags | IntechOpen

    May 07, 2018 Steelmaking plants continuously strive to reduce the environmental load in the steelmaking process, resulting in the recycling of energy, water, and other byproducts. In this chapter, techniques for the treatment and recycling of metallurgical slags are described. Metallurgical slags are considered secondary raw materials and are used or added during the

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  • Utilization of Solid Waste from Steel Melting Shop
    Utilization of Solid Waste from Steel Melting Shop

    iron and steelmaking process is 8 tons of moist dust laden gases, 0.5 ton of effluent water, 0.4 to 0.8 ton of solid waste, besides one ton of liquid steel. In the first five decades of post independence era, till the year 2000, about 90 million

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  • SLAG IN THE PRODUCTION OF WROUGHT IRON
    SLAG IN THE PRODUCTION OF WROUGHT IRON

    nace are molten pig iron, liquid slag and blast furnace gases. Liquid pig iron is the basic alloy for steelmaking. Modern direct reduction processes of high-grade iron ores or concentrates with hydro-gen and carbon monoxide take place at temperatures that are below the melting points of iron and slag that are formed in standard processes

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  • Steel and Iron Handbook - Entrepreneur India
    Steel and Iron Handbook - Entrepreneur India

    Modern Steelmaking-Bofild Steel Making (1) In an LD refining is complete in about 20-25 minutes of oxygen blowing and a tap to tap time of 40 to 60 minutes is needed. (2) The oxidizing conditions in LD are not conducive to desulphurisation, external desulphurisation of molten iron in transfer ladles is the answer

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  • Steps in the Modern Steelmaking Process
    Steps in the Modern Steelmaking Process

    Feb 29, 2012 Primary steelmaking has two methods: BOS (Basic Oxygen Furnace) and the more modern EAF (Electric Arc Furnace) methods. The BOS method adds recycled scrap steel to the molten iron in a converter. At high temperatures, oxygen is blown through the metal, which reduces the carbon content to between 0-1.5%

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  • 6 Steps of Modern Steelmaking Process | 3MVET
    6 Steps of Modern Steelmaking Process | 3MVET

    Modern methods, however, are still based the same premise as the Bessemer Process, namely, how to most efficiently use oxygen to lower the carbon content in iron. Modern steelmaking can be broken down into six steps: 1. Ironmaking: In the first step, the raw inputs iron ore, coke, and lime are melted in a blast furnace. The resulting molten iron - also referred to as 'hot metal'

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  • Chapter 1.1 - Ironmaking
    Chapter 1.1 - Ironmaking

    Jan 01, 2014 The chemical reactions between iron ore (iron oxides) and reductant (coke and other injected fuels, and hydrogen from water vapor) and combustion of fuels fulfill the two important requirements of ironmaking process: reduction of iron oxides to metallic iron and forming liquid slag and hot metal; heating up the ferrous burden and coke to the required

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  • Open Hearth Process - an overview | ScienceDirect
    Open Hearth Process - an overview | ScienceDirect

    Lauri Holappa, in Treatise on Process Metallurgy: Industrial Processes, 2014. 1.6.1 Introduction. Modern primary steelmaking was established in the second half of the nineteenth century when converter processes (Bessemer and Thomas), open hearth process (Siemens and Martin), and electric steelmaking were developed. Converter process could be used only for oxidizing

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  • A Brief History - Ironworking and steelmaking
    A Brief History - Ironworking and steelmaking

    Basic Oxygen steelmaking is a small step forward from the Bessemer Process, and it gradually replaced it throughout the world. Rather than blasting air into molten iron, as in the Bessemer Process, in BOP pure oxygen is ‘injected’ into the melt. Sir Henry Bessemer had a basic understanding that it was the oxygen responsible for the removal of carbon from the iron, but

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  • Hydrometallurgical Processes for the Recovery of
    Hydrometallurgical Processes for the Recovery of

    Nov 13, 2020 The processes are as follows: (1) leaching with NH 3 –(NH 4) 2 CO 3; (2) purification by cementation with zinc powder; (3) air oxidation to precipitate iron as Fe(OH) 3; (4) process to recover NH 3; and (5) precipitation of zinc as basic ZnCO 2 by steam heating

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  • (PDF) Sulphur removal in ironmaking and oxygen
    (PDF) Sulphur removal in ironmaking and oxygen

    Mar 22, 2017 Sulphur removal in the ironmaking and oxygen steelmaking process is reviewed. A sulphur balance is made for the steelmaking process of Tata Steel IJmuiden, the

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  • Steeelmaking 1 Phpapp02
    Steeelmaking 1 Phpapp02

    Such a process is called basic steelmaking process. The furnace lining in this case has to be basic in nature. In brief the composition of pig iron is the only factor that determines the acid or the basic character of the process to be adopted for steelmaking. In an acid process slag is acidic and the furnace lining has to be acidic to

    Read more +
  • A Fe-C-Ca big cycle in modern carbon-intensive industries
    A Fe-C-Ca big cycle in modern carbon-intensive industries

    Feb 29, 2016 On the other hand, the CO could be oxidized into CO 2 by the reaction of Fe x O y reduction, which in fact, accounted for the typical iron-making process 36,40. Third, another important process in the big Fe-C-Ca-cycle was the Ca-path, as depicted in Fig. 6, since it referred to the CaCO 3 calcination and thus the CO 2 emission reduction

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  • Ironmaking Technology for the Last 100 Years: Deployment
    Ironmaking Technology for the Last 100 Years: Deployment

    2.1. Introduction of Modern Ironmaking Technology. Historically, iron was produced in Japan by a small-scale ironmaking method called the tatara 92) process with iron sand as the main raw material . Use of the blast furnace process 93) began on December 1, 1857 following the construction of a western-style blast furnace in Kamaishi by T. Oshima. In commemoration of

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  • Making Shaping - Steelmaking - Chapter 9
    Making Shaping - Steelmaking - Chapter 9

    Chapter 11 contains a detailed discussion of the refining processes occurring in the ladle after steelmaking. 9.5 Process Variations 9.5.1 The Bottom-Blown Oxygen Steelmaking or OBM (Q-BOP) Process The successful development and application of the shrouded oxygen tuyere in the late 1960s led to the development of the OBM (Q-BOP) process in the

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  • Electrical Engineering of Arc Furnace
    Electrical Engineering of Arc Furnace

    Oct 16, 2021 the ore is still existent so that it must again be molten down in the process ... It comprises three phases 1, ... Ironmaking and Steelmaking 17 (1990) No. 2, 123-129 [6] Bowman, B.: Solution of arc-furnace electrical circuit in terms of arc voltage

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  • Qiang LI | Professor (Associate) | PhD | Northeastern
    Qiang LI | Professor (Associate) | PhD | Northeastern

    Qiang Li currently works at the School of Metallurgy, Northeastern University (Shenyang, China). Qiang does research in Metallurgical & Chemical Engineering, Industrial Engineering and

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  • Which gas is used in making steel? - Quora
    Which gas is used in making steel? - Quora

    Answer (1 of 2): The quick answer is carbon monoxide! The Old Steelmaking Engineer says: here’s how it works: A mix of high-volatile, medium volatile and low-volatile coal (volatile meaning the relative content of xylene, toluene, butadiene and other aromatic hydrocarbons) is coked (meaning hea

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  • AISI Direct Steelmaking Final Report - SlideShare
    AISI Direct Steelmaking Final Report - SlideShare

    May 23, 2015 AISI Direct Steelmaking Final Report. 1. DOF_JID/12847--7 (DE94017940) Distribution Category UC-1419 AISI DIRECTSTEELMAKINGPROGRAN Final TechnicalReport By Egil Aukrust August 1994 Work PerformedUnder ContractNo. DE-FCO7-891DI2847 Preparedfor the U.S. Departmentof Energy Under DOE IdahoOperationsOffice Sponsoredby the Office of

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  • (PDF) Converter Process - AOD | himanshu verma
    (PDF) Converter Process - AOD | himanshu verma

    The AOD process is usually divided in three main steps: decarburization, reduction, and desulfurization. In Figure 1.4.20, an example of the progress of AOD process is presented. In the beginning of the AOD process, pure oxygen is blown and silicon and carbon are oxidizing

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  • Nitrogen in Steels – IspatGuru
    Nitrogen in Steels – IspatGuru

    May 23, 2013 Nitrogen exists in steel in two forms namely (i) in the atomic form as interstitial nitrogen, or as unstable and easily dissolved nitrides, e.g. Fe4N etc., and (ii) in the form of stable nitrides. In atomic form, it is known as the active or free nitrogen in steel. In micro-alloyed steels e.g. high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels, some or all

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